April 9th, 2012
By Daniel Golden
Michigan State University President Lou Anna K. Simon contacted the Central Intelligence Agency in late 2009 with an urgent question.
The school’s campus in Dubai needed a bailout and an unlikely savior had stepped forward: a Dubai-based company that offered to provide money and students.
Simon was tempted. She also worried that the company, which had investors from Iran and wanted to recruit students from there, might be a front for the Iranian government, she said. If so, an agreement could violate federal trade sanctions and invite enemy spies.
The CIA couldn’t confirm that the company wasn’t an arm of Iran’s government. Simon rejected the offer and shut down undergraduate programs in Dubai, at a loss of $3.7 million.
Hearkening back to Cold War anxieties, growing signs of spying on U.S. universities are alarming national security officials. As schools become more global in their locations and student populations, their culture of openness and international collaboration makes them increasingly vulnerable to theft of research conducted for the government and industry.
“We have intelligence and cases indicating that U.S. universities are indeed a target of foreign intelligence services,” Frank Figliuzzi, Federal Bureau of Investigation assistant director for counterintelligence, said in a February interview in the bureau’s Washington headquarters.
While overshadowed by espionage against corporations, efforts by foreign countries to penetrate universities have increased in the past five years, Figliuzzi said. The FBI and academia, which have often been at loggerheads, are working together to combat the threat, he said.
Attempts by countries in East Asia, including China, to obtain classified or proprietary information by “academic solicitation,” such as requests to review academic papers or study with professors, jumped eightfold in 2010 from a year earlier, according to a 2011 U.S. Defense Department report. Such approaches from the Middle East doubled, it said.
“Placing academics at U.S. research institutions under the guise of legitimate research offers access to developing U.S. technologies and cutting-edge research” in such areas as information systems, lasers, aeronautics and underwater robots, the report said.
Welcoming world-class talent to American universities helps the U.S. sustain global supremacy in science and technology, said University of Maryland President Wallace Loh. He chairs the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s academic advisory council, which held its first meeting March 20 and is expected to address such topics as federal tracking of international students.
Foreign countries “can never become competitive by stealing,” he said. “Once you exhaust that technology, you have to start developing the next generation.”
Foreigners on temporary visas made up 46 percent of science and engineering graduate students at Georgia Institute of Technology and Michigan State and 41 percent at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2009, according to a federal survey. China sent 76,830 graduate students to U.S. universities in 2010-2011, more than any other country and up almost 16 percent from the prior year, according to the Institute of International Education in New York.
While most international students, researchers and professors come to the U.S. for legitimate reasons, universities are an “ideal place” for foreign intelligence services “to find recruits, propose and nurture ideas, learn and even steal research data, or place trainees,” according to a 2011 FBI report.
In one instance described in the report, the hosts of an international conference invited a U.S. researcher to submit a paper. When she gave her talk at the conference, they requested a copy, hooked a thumb drive to her laptop and downloaded every file. In another, an Asian graduate student arranged for researchers back home to visit an American university lab and take unauthorized photos of equipment so they could reconstruct it, the report said.
A foreign scientist’s military background or purpose isn’t always apparent. Accustomed to hosting visiting scholars, Professor Daniel J. Scheeres didn’t hesitate to grant a request several years ago by Yu Xiaohong to study with him at the University of Michigan. She expressed a “pretty general interest” in Scheeres’s work on topics such as movement of celestial bodies in space, he said in a telephone interview.
Unaware of Credentials
She cited an affiliation with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a civilian organization, Scheeres said. The Beijing address Yu listed in the Michigan online directory is the same as the Academy of Equipment Command & Technology, where instructors train Chinese military cadets and officers. Scheeres said he wasn’t aware of that military connection, nor that Yu co-wrote a 2004 article on improving the precision of anti- satellite weapons.
Once Yu arrived, her questions made him uncomfortable, said Scheeres, who now teaches at the University of Colorado. As a result, he stopped accepting visiting scholars from China.
“It was pretty clear to me that the stuff she was interested in probably had some military satellite-orbit applications,” he said. “Once I saw that, I didn’t really tell her anything new, or anything that couldn’t be published. I didn’t engage that deeply with her.”
Wrote About NASA
Yu later wrote a paper on the implications for space warfare of the NASA Deep Impact mission, which sent a spacecraft to collide with a comet. She couldn’t be reached for comment.
American universities have also trained Chinese researchers who later committed corporate espionage. Hanjuan Jin, a former software engineer at Motorola Inc., was found guilty in February in federal court of stealing the Schaumburg, Illinois-based company’s trade secrets and acquitted of charges she did so to benefit China’s military. She is scheduled for sentencing in May and has also filed a motion for a new trial.
Jin joined the company, now known as Motorola Solutions Inc. (MOT), after earning a master’s degree from the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana. While at Motorola, she received a second master’s, this time in computer science, from the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. IIT’s own research wasn’t compromised, institute spokesman Evan Venie said in an e-mail. A Notre Dame spokesman declined to comment.
Study Abroad Targets
More Americans are heading overseas for schooling, becoming potential targets for intelligence services, Figliuzzi said. More than 270,000 Americans studied abroad for credit in 2009- 2010, up 4 percent from the year before. President Barack Obama has announced an initiative to send 100,000 American students to China, and China has committed 10,000 scholarships for them.
As a junior at Grand Valley State University in Allendale, Michigan, Glenn Duffie Shriver studied at East China Normal University in Shanghai. After graduation, he fell in with Chinese agents, who paid him more than $70,000. At their request, he returned to the U.S. and applied for jobs in the State Department and the CIA. He was sentenced to four years in prison in January 2011 after pleading guilty to conspiring to provide national-defense information to intelligence officers of the People’s Republic of China.
“Study-abroad programs are an attractive target. Foreign security services find young, bright U.S. kids in science or politics, it’s worth winning them over,” Figliuzzi said.
Unlike its counterparts in other countries, which rely on their own operatives, China’s intelligence service deploys a freelance network including students, researchers and false- front companies, said David Major, president of the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies in Falls Church, Virginia and a former FBI official.
China has “lots of students who either are forced to or volunteer to collect information,” he said. “I’ve heard it said, ‘If it wanted to steal a beach, Russia would send a forklift. China would send a thousand people who would pick up a grain of sand at a time.’”
China also has more than 3,000 front companies in the U.S. “for the sole purpose of acquiring our technology,” former CIA officer S. Eugene Poteat, president of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers in McLean, Virginia, wrote in the fall/winter 2006-2007 edition of “Intelligencer: Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies.”
U.S. and Canadian universities reaped $2.5 billion in 2011 from licensing technology, up from $222 million in 1991, according to the Association of University Technology Managers in Deerfield, Illinois.
‘Opened Some Eyes’
Universities “may not fully grasp exactly who they’re spinning off their inventions to,” Figliuzzi said. “The company could be a front for a foreign power, and often is. We share specific intelligence with university presidents, and we’ve opened some eyes.”
Michigan State’s Simon learned to be wary of front companies by serving on the National Security Higher Education Advisory Board, established by the FBI and CIA in 2005. It “makes you more aware that you need to look below the surface of some of these offers,” she said. “A short-term solution may turn into an institutional embarrassment.”
Arizona State University President Michael Crow also sits on the board. “It’s all a little perplexing and overwhelming,” he said. “We’re in the business of trying to recruit more students from China. We’re operating at a total openness mode, while we recognize there are people working beyond the rules to acquire information.”
The Chinese embassy in Washington and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Beijing didn’t respond to e-mailed questions.
Over the years, American universities have enabled China “to leapfrog into the cutting edge of military capability on the way to superpower status,” Richard Fisher, senior fellow on Asian Military Affairs at the International Assessment and Strategy Center in Alexandria, Virginia, said in an e-mail.
Chen Dingchang, the head of a Chinese military-sponsored working group on anti-satellite technology, led a delegation in 1998 to the University of Florida to learn about diamond-coating manufacturing, used in missile seekers and other systems, said Mark Stokes, executive director of the Project 2049 Institute in Arlington, Virginia, which studies Chinese aerospace technology. In a 1999 report in a Chinese journal, the authors, including Chen, said the university’s cooperation would assist in overcoming a technical bottleneck in China’s development of anti-satellite warheads.
‘Unlikely to Advertise’
“A university may not know that a visiting engineer could be conducting sponsored research on a military program that could hurt Americans in the event of a conflict,” Stokes said. “An engineer supporting a People’s Liberation Army program is unlikely to advertise his or her purpose.”
The University of Florida is “unable to verify” the incident, spokesman Stephen Orlando said.
Chen is a technology adviser at China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp., which didn’t respond to an interview request.
University administrators have traditionally viewed their role as safeguarding academic freedom and making sure that all students, domestic or foreign, are treated the same.
“I’ve been to campuses where deans would say to Chinese students, ‘The FBI is coming to talk to you. You have no responsibility to talk to them,’” Major said. “Very hostile environments.”
Some faculty members remain uneasy about a partnership with federal investigators. “The FBI thrives on a certain degree of paranoia, and it operates in secrecy,” said David Gibbs, a history professor at the University of Arizona. “The secrecy goes against so much of what universities are about, which is openness and transparency.”
Stanford University avoids seeking contracts for “export- controlled” research, which only Americans can work on without a license because it has implications for economic or national security.
“Stanford does not, nor will it, restrict participation of students on the basis of citizenship,” President John Hennessy testified at a January 2010, congressional hearing in Palo Alto, California. More than half of Stanford’s doctoral candidates in the physical sciences and engineering come from outside the U.S., he said.
Asked by Dana Rohrabacher, a Republican congressman from California, if he had read that Chinese military intelligence uses Chinese students, Hennessy said, “I am aware of that.”
“Universities need to think that they are patriotic Americans, too,” Rohrabacher responded.
Hennessy is on sabbatical and unavailable to comment, Lisa Lapin, a Stanford spokeswoman, said in an e-mail.
After becoming Pennsylvania State University president in 1995, Graham Spanier sought closer collaboration with law enforcement. Reading that a president at another state university expressed shock that a faculty member was under investigation for terrorist ties, he resolved not to be similarly taken aback. He arranged a meeting with representatives of national security agencies including the FBI, CIA, Secret Service and Naval Criminal Investigative Service.
“This had never occurred before,” Spanier said in a phone interview. “Nobody from higher education had reached out.”
If they were making inquiries at Penn State, they should let him know, and he would help, Spanier told them. “That began a very fruitful collaboration,” he said.
Shifting priorities after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks to terrorism and espionage from organized crime and kidnapping, the FBI expanded the Penn State model into a national board.
Spanier approached other university presidents, and 90 percent agreed to serve, he said. Michigan State’s Simon took over as chair after Spanier stepped down as Penn State president last November in the wake of a scandal over sex-abuse allegations against a former assistant football coach. Simon and the FBI and CIA have agreed to expand the board and start a subcommittee on cyber-hacking.
The FBI handpicks universities for the board, Figliuzzi said. It looks at how much research they conduct, as well as “sensitive cases -- where is there a potential problem? Then we make an invitation.”
Board members must have security clearances. FBI officials brief them about cases on their campuses, and the presidents in return guide federal investigators through the thickets of higher education.
When a foreign entity compromised the computer system of a major university, the bureau contacted the school’s information- technology administrators, who denied that they had a security breach. The FBI consulted Spanier, who persuaded the university’s president to meet with the bureau.
“That opened the door to a higher level of cooperation,” he said. “The problem was solved.”
Similarly, the bureau warned Simon that research in behavioral science by a foreign graduate student at Michigan State “might breach the security of corporate America,” she said. “We were able to find a way for the student to complete his research and still modify it in a way that took away the national security issues.”
Beyond resolving such cases, the FBI has also alerted board members to the overall threat, most dramatically through a presentation by a former Russian spy. As a colonel in Russian intelligence and its deputy resident in New York from 1995 to 2000, Sergei Tretyakov set his sights on Columbia University and New York University, according to “Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia’s Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War” (2008), by Pete Earley.
Mingled With Professors
“We often targeted academics because their job was to share knowledge and information by teaching it to others, and this made them less guarded than, say, UN diplomats,” Earley quoted Tretyakov as saying. A typical task was to obtain information about “a study of genetically engineered food being done at New York University.”
At the board meeting, Tretyakov described to the presidents how Russian spies used to go to campus events and mingle with professors. “It certainly seemed very bold to me that they felt they could interact with faculty and students and attend seminars,” Spanier said. “We never really think about that happening on our campuses.”
In 2009, around the time Tretyakov was briefing the presidents, a Russian spy, Lidiya Guryeva, was pursuing a master’s degree in business at Columbia under the name Cynthia Murphy, the 2011 FBI report said. Russian intelligence instructed her to strengthen “ties w. classmates on daily basis incl. professors who can help in job search and who will have (or already have) access to secret info,” and to report on their potential “to be recruited by Service.”
Columbia and NYU declined to comment.
Tretyakov died in June 2010. That month, Guryeva was arrested for acting as an agent of a foreign power and deported to Russia.
More From Bloomberg
To contact the reporter on this story: Dan Golden in Boston at firstname.lastname@example.org
April 9th, 2012
- Rev. Jeremiah Wright delivered three fiery sermons about faith, race and politics at Metropolitan Baptist Church in Charleston, West Virginia
- Wright said Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas worships “some other God” outside of “Allah and Yahweh” (who are the “same” he says)
- Obama’s former pastor called Thomas Jefferson “a pedophile”
- He sees “white supremacy” driving “world policy”
- Wright condemned the U.S. military, saying, “fighting for peace is like raping for virginity”
The Rev. Jeremiah Wright became a household name during the 2008 presidential campaign. The fiery preacher, who was President Barack Obama’s pastor for two decades, has since retired from his position at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago, Illinois. However, he’s still an active figure in geopolitical and faith movements, as his bizarre commentaries often offend detractors and inspire intense debate.
Last week, Wright spoke at Metropolitan Baptist Church in Charleston, West Virginia, as part of a week-long revival event. His controversial words took aim at Thomas Jefferson, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, the media and plenty of other targets.
“I’m not divisive, the media is divisive,” he said, going on to lament the soundbites he claims were unfairly used to disparage him during the 2008 campaign.
As could be expected, the three evening sermons he delivered during the revival often turned to themes and subjects much more controversial than alleged media bias.
“Believers beware,” Wright preached in one of his lessons. “There are some conversations you will find yourselves in in which there is no communication taking place.”
He went on to speak about Jesus and Pontius Pilate in John 18 in the Bible, saying that they were speaking “two different languages.“ This sermon quickly delved into his belief that ”the Italian army — Roman soldiers“ were ”occupying Palestinian territory.”
Then, Wright found himself discussing U.S. operations in the Middle East, while also taking aim at FOX News personalities Bill O’Reilly and Sean Hannity.
“I was in the military six years and neither Hannity or O’Reilly was in the military,” he proclaimed. “Let me tell you one thing they taught us in the United States Marine Corps…fighting for peace is like raping for virginity. Those are oxymorons, but that’s what we do in the name of regime change.”
The controversial preacher also showed no love for Justice Thomas, as he told his audience that, though Thomas “looks like” them, he is “worshipping some other God.” He also made an intriguing comparison about the God of the Hebrew Bible and the Lord depicted in the Quran.
“The god of racists is not the God of righteousness. The god of the greedy is not the God of grace. The god of Wall Street is not the God of Main Street,” Wright proclaimed. “Those are two different gods and I ain’t talking about Allah and Yahweh. Those are the same names for the same God.”
He continued, taking a jab at Thomas and his Christian faith.
“And I’m not talking about black and white…some of ya‘ll think I’m talking about white folk,” he said. “There’s a whole lot of folk who look like you who are worshipping some other God — somebody shout Clarence Thomas. Hallelujah!”
Wright also tackled racial issues, while waging a bizarre accusation at Thomas Jefferson.
“There are politicians who are making decisions about you, about your life, about your future, about your family about your children — and the real tragedy is they live in a different world from your world all together,” he proclaimed. “There are people in power right now who have opinions about you based on their privilege of skin color.”
As he spoke about race, Wright’s rhetoric intensified.
“I am in the text. Pilate was European…Jesus was not European. They live in a world shaped by European standards of beauty, shaped by Moynihan studies, shaped by bell curves — they live in a different world from your world all together,” he told the audience. “They are ignorant and arrogant and these are graduates of Harvard and Yale setting policies over you based on the stupidity of David Hume…Voltaire, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Thomas Jefferson — a pedophile — Theodore Roosevelt and a racist Supreme Court.”
But he wasn’t done there.
“The ignorance and arrogance of white supremacy have the movers and shapers of world policy living in a different world from people of color all together,” Wright raged on. “And the sooner you realize that the better off you’re gonna be.”
Early on in this same address, while speaking about Luke 19, Wright took aim at conservatives, saying, ”You will not hear this passage of John 19 preached on Wall Street. You won’t hear this Luke 19 Scripture exegeted in the comfortable pews of the rich folk, the greedy folk or the Tea Party praisers.”
It is in this chapter that Zacchaeus, a tax collector, encounters Jesus and subsequently decides to change his ways, pledging to give half of his possessions away. Additionally, he offers to give back four times what he owes to anyone he has cheated. Clearly, the preacher sees conservatives as “greedy folks.”
“That is called restorative justice and theology – restore the stuff that the greedy stole from the needy,” Wright continued.
Top Stories at The Blaze
April 9th, 2012
By Dylan Stableford | The Cutline
Trayvon Martin shooter George Zimmerman has apparently launched a website—TheRealGeorgeZimmerman.com—to relay a message thanking his supporters, and to collect donations via PayPal for his living and defense expenses. The site had been down intermittently on Monday afternoon.
"I am the real George Zimmerman," a message on the site begins. "On Sunday February 26th, I was involved in a life altering event which led me to become the subject of intense media coverage. As a result of the incident and subsequent media coverage, I have been forced to leave my home, my school, my employer, my family and ultimately, my entire life. This website's sole purpose is to ensure my supporters they are receiving my full attention without any intermediaries."
The site's background is an image of a large American flag. The domain was privately registered on Sunday, according to NetworkSolutions.com records.
NBC News' Mara Schiavocampo said she confirmed through Zimmerman's lawyers that the site is indeed his. CNN and other media outlets followed.
More from Zimmerman's site:
It has come to my attention that some persons and/or entities have been collecting funds, thinly veiled as my "Defense Fund" or "Legal Fund". I cannot attest to the validity of these other websites as I have not received any funds collected, intended to support my family and I through this trying, tragic time.
I have created a Paypal account solely linked on this website as I would like to provide an avenue to thank my supporters personally and ensure that any funds provided are used only for living expenses and legal defense, in lieu of my forced inability to maintain employment. I will also personally, maintain accountability of all funds received. I reassure you, every donation is appreciated.
The posted message concluded with a quote from Edmund Burke: "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil, is that good men do nothing."
Earlier on Monday, Angela Corey, the special prosecutor appointed to investigate the shooting death of Martin, said that the case will not go to a grand jury.
The decision does not rule out the possibility that George Zimmerman, Martin's shooter, could be arrested.
According to Orlando's WFTV, Zimmerman could be arrested as early as this week.
Other popular stories:
April 9th, 2012
Mitt Romney’s attempt to pull off a victory in Rick Santorum’s home state of Pennsylvania was all set to go into overdrive Monday with attack ads highlighting how voters there soundly rejected him in his 2006 Senate race.
But the aggressive tactics that have served Mr. Romney so well in other states faced an unexpected complication: the emergency hospitalization of Mr. Santorum’s disabled daughter Bella, which prompted an outpouring of public sympathy.
The Romney camp abruptly pulled the ads on Monday morning. Bella, 3, who was born with a rare chromosomal disorder, was expected to return home soon to Virginia from the hospital, the Santorum campaign said. Her medical struggles, which in some ways have become the emotional centerpiece of Mr. Santorum’s race, have the potential to complicate Mr. Romney’s effort to quickly end the Republican nominating fight.
“The family has been humbled and overwhelmed by the amount of support they’ve received,” said a spokesman for Mr. Santorum’s campaign, Hogan Gidley, citing thousands of comments on the candidate’s Facebook page and e-mailed “prayer chains.”
Mr. Santorum’s decision to cancel campaign events to be with his daughter after she was hospitalized on Friday with pneumonia — her second bout since January — intensified speculation that he would choose the moment to exit the race gracefully, as a chorus of Republican leaders have urged for the sake of party unity.
But Mr. Gidley doused that notion. Mr. Santorum planned to return to campaigning in the south-central Pennsylvania town of Bedford with a rally on Tuesday.
“The fact is, there is still a narrow path, but a path nonetheless, for Rick Santorum to become the nominee, and the Romney campaign knows it or they wouldn’t be sending people all over Pennsylvania and Texas to prevent it,” Mr. Gidley said.
The ad the Romney campaign pulled, after it ran at least 11 times in the Philadelphia media market, according to Kantar Media’s campaign media analysis group, bluntly addressed Pennsylvania voters: “We fired him as senator. Why promote him to president?”
The Romney campaign substituted a positive ad “out of deference” to Mr. Santorum, a spokeswoman, Andrea Saul, said.
Once Bella is released from the hospital, the Romney campaign was expected to put the anti-Santorum ad back into its rotation, although that could take a day or two. The Romney campaign has planned a $2.9 million barrage of advertising over the next two weeks in Pennsylvania, which Mr. Santorum has called a must-win contest, although polls show him losing ground.
Jim Roddey, chairman of the Republican Committee of Allegheny County, who has endorsed Mr. Romney, said the campaign probably would conduct polling to see whether Bella’s hospitalization remained a sensitive issue. But, he said, sympathy for Bella would probably not bring Mr. Santorum any new votes, nor would it deter the Romney camp from full-throated attacks on Mr. Santorum.
“He’s still not talking about the kinds of things most people are most concerned about, jobs and the economy.”
Bella, who was born with Trisomy 18, a rare disorder that is fatal to most of children within their first year, has become a touchstone for Mr. Santorum, both humanizing him and serving as flashpoint for debate over health care with President Obama.
Mr. Santorum mentions her at almost every appearance, sometimes explaining that his wife is not at his side because she is home caring for her; and sometimes, especially in churches, telling of how when Bella was born, doctors sent her home to die because her disorder was “incompatible with life.”
“It angered us to hear that,” Mr. Santorum explains in a video on his campaign Web site. “She was our daughter like every one of our children and we were not going to let her go.”
April 9th, 2012
GulfNews.com / By Mick O'Reilly, Senior Associate Editor
The story of the Titanic and its sinking has captivated generations. Now, a century later, the disaster still has a deep impact on our psyche.
There's a scene in James Cameron's blockbuster movie, Titanic, where a flimsily-dressed Kate Winslet and Leonardo DiCaprio stand on the bow of the ill-fated ship, arms outstretched, and proclaim they're "king of the world".
In truth, if that had happened on the real ship during its tragic maiden voyage, they'd be frozen stiff from the wind chill — a combination of the 23 knots the ship was making that night a century ago and the biting Arctic chill coming down from the Davis Sea between Greenland and Canada's Labrador coast.
That was the same wind that brought an unusually high number of icebergs from their calving grounds off the west coast of the world's largest island — and it was one of those that dealt the decisive glancing gash to the White Star liner's hull.
The story of the ship and its sinking have captivated generations.
The sinking of the unsinkable ship on its maiden voyage, the tragic loss of more than 1,500 lives, the movies and the myths have had a deep impact on our psyche.
The city of Belfast, where the Titanic and her sister ships Britannic and Oceanic were built, has invested nearly £100 million to turn the legend into the ultimate tourism experience.
But it's also a chance for the city to tell of its history as the largest shipbuilding facility in the world in the heyday of transatlantic sailing.
If the British Empire was built on its ability to rule the waves, most of those ships were built in Belfast, where nearly 50,000 men worked in the yards of Harland and Wolff — the largest maritime construction facility in the world.
The Titanic had a date with destiny on the night of April 14, 1912, and some would argue that the ship was always unlucky.
A full year before its maiden voyage, the Titanic claimed its first victim. As the empty hull was launched down a slip on the city's RiverLagan, a shipwright was crushed, and died the next day.
That hull was later moved to a fitting out dock for completion. In another stroke of bad luck, the sea trials and maiden voyage of the fitted-out ship were delayed by two weeks when the fitting-out dock was needed to repair Titanic's slightly smaller sister, Oceanic, which was damaged in a collision at sea with a naval ship.
The Harland and Wolff shipyards are largely dormant now, a place where sailmakers, rope makers, shipwrights, boilermakers, riveters, steel pressers, painters and a host of long-lost tradesmen toiled building the might of the British Empire.
There were more than three million rivets pounded into the hull of the Titanic. Each was hammered in by hand, and each was a highly skilful and dangerous process where the rivet was heated to red hot, then physically tossed up scaffolding to where it was needed, caught by young boys in leather buckets, then held in place by an assistant before the riveter hammered it home.
Most working the rivets were deaf from the constant pounding inside steel hulls, and most riveters were without some of their fingers, regularly having them severed as the giant steel plates slipped during the construction process.
A multi-media visitor centre has been built to replicate the bows of the Titanic and its sister ships, standing 125 feet above the ground. Inside, the central staircase and first-class dining room have been recreated, and the floor of the exhibition is withdrawn, showing a replica of the wreck as she sits in two pieces at a depth over nearly 4,000 metres off the coast of Canada.
Unesco declared the wreck a world heritage site in a bid to protect it. So far, some 700 divers have descended on the wreck in which 124 first class, 166 second class, 530 third class and 692 crew died.
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